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On Santorini, there is a 60 m (200 ft) thick layer of white tephra that overlies the soil clearly delineating the ground level prior to the eruption.
This layer has three distinct bands that indicate the different phases of the eruption.i, notes that the local population had advance warning of the impending eruption, leaving the island prior to its destruction.
Despite this evidence, the exact date of the eruption has been difficult to determine.
Current estimates based on radiocarbon dating indicate that the eruption occurred between 1627 Archaeologists developed the Late Bronze Age chronologies of eastern Mediterranean cultures by analyzing the origin of artifacts (for example, items from Crete, mainland Greece, Cyprus or Canaan) found in each archaeological layer.
In a repeating process, the volcano would violently erupt, then eventually collapse into a roughly circular seawater-filled caldera, with numerous small islands forming the circle.
placing the Volcanic Explosivity Index of the Thera eruption at 6 or 7.The tsunami had an impact on coastal towns such as Amnisos, where building walls were knocked out of alignment.On the island of Anafi, 27 km (17 mi) to the east, ash layers 3 m (9.8 ft) deep have been found, as well as pumice layers on slopes 250 m (820 ft) above sea level.Elsewhere in the Mediterranean there are pumice deposits which could have been caused by the Thera eruption.Ash layers in cores drilled from the seabed and from lakes in Turkey, however, show that the heaviest ashfall was towards the east and northeast of Santorini.