After independence, there was conflict between plantation and industrial economic interests and those of small, peasant cultivators and landless laborers.In the 1920s, rural, landless unemployed persons moved into the Kingston-Saint Andrew area in search of work.These dwellings are starting to disappear, as they are being replaced by more modern dwellings with cinder block walls and a corrugated metal roof. A "country" morning meal, called "drinking tea," includes boiled bananas or roasted breadfruit, sauteed callaloo with "saal fish" (salted cod), and "bush" (herbal) or "chaklit" (chocolate) tea.
Jews came as indentured servants to help establish the sugar industry and gradually became part of the merchant class.
Since much of Caribbean life takes place outdoors, this has influenced the design and size of buildings, particularly among the rural poor.
The Spanish style is reflected in the use of balconies, wrought iron, plaster and brick facades, arched windows and doors, and high ceilings.
The East Indians and Chinese arrived as indentured laborers. The official language is English, reflecting the British colonial heritage, but even in official contexts a number of creole dialects that reflect class, place, and social context are spoken. The national motto, which was adopted after independence from Great Britain in 1962, is "Out of many, one people." In the national flag, the two black triangles represent historical struggles and hardship, green triangles represent agricultural wealth and hope, and yellow cross-stripes represent sunshine and mineral resources. Jamaica was a Spanish colony from 1494 to 1655 and a British colony from 1655 to 1962.
The colonial period was marked by conflict between white absentee owners and local managers and merchants and African slave laborers.