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With the severance of the Protestant West from the Orthodox East during the early 14th century (1323, treaty of Nötteborg, if I remember correctly) the prerequisites were lain down for the centripetal development of a relatively uniform set of dialects influenced to varying degrees by Swedish and Saami in the Protestant province of Finland, and the continued centrifugal development of a more heterogeneous set of dialects which eventually differentiated to such a degree that they have to be regarded as separate languages, i.e. The expansion of the Teutonic knights to the south in what are now Estonia and Latvia resulted in a weakening of contacts between southern Finland and northern Estonia, allowing for more differentiation, as well as in the erection of cultural and administrative boundaries which allowed the dialects of southern Estonia and Livonia to develop each in its own manner. At the time of the Reformation ‘Finnish’ was thus a group of closely allied but distinct dialects.The Finnish bishop Mikael Agricola forged a written language based primarily on the heavily Suedicized speech of the Turku/Aabo area, but also incorporating a few more typically Finnish elements from the Häme and south‑eastern dialects.These methods have successfully been used in the study of American Indian and African languages, that is to say, of languages lacking continuous written records.The conditions in which the northern Eurasian languages are spoken ‑ vast tracts of sparsely inhabited land in which many small have languages coexisted and intermingled over the centuries, confronts traditional historical linguistics with challenges that it has not been able to deal with satisfactorily.In any case, Finnish at least is not of Asiatic origin, its original source (like, thousands of years ago) was near Volga a good way west of the Urals mountains. Increased influx of Baltic‑Finnic population across the Gulf of Finland, the Karelian Isthmus, and, to a lesser extent, the forested areas of Karelia resulted in the consolidation of locally differentiated regional dialects.And, I think that every form of historical linguistics places Finnish in its own ‘camp’ of Fenno‑Ugric languages, which Turkish isn’t a part of. An influx of Scandinavian population during and after the Crusades influenced those dialects spoken in the western part of the country, particularly those in the area of the medieval center Turku/Aabo, contact with and the gradual assimilation of the Saam‑speaking population left their imprint on the dialects in the north, while increased cultural influence from speakers of Old Russian began to leave their imprint on the dialects of the east.Sajnovic, who supplemented Gyarmathi’s findings with systematic comparisons of phonology, morphology, and semantics, published a more modestly entitled ‘Affinitas…’ (‘The Affinity of the Hungarian and Finnish Languages’) in 1799. The paragraph about Sajnovics and Gyarmathi should have read: . Gyarmathyi spent a year in Lapland and, having nothing better to do, he learned Saami. ‘I am reading about one apostle.’ Compare: Luen kaksi kirjaa. To say what you want to say the numeral and the noun phrase subordinated to it must be in the *elative case* because they are not a direct object, but rather an adverbial complement: Luen yhdestätoista apostolista. [total object] Thus, Russian makes the difference by opposing different aspectual forms of the verb, Finnish by opposing different case forms of the noun, and Estonian by opposing different case forms of the noun supplemented by aspectual particles.The book was hostily received, and in his obituary he was said to have done his country a greater service by having introduced two strains of potato than by having demonstrated beyond any doubt that Hungarian, Finnish, Saami and numerous minor tongues spoken in the depths of Russia were related. So, I’d like to stop here, but the history of the basic elements of Finnish obviously extends back a long time before the (possible) settlement of a tribe of Neolithic nomads along the uninhabited shores of the Volga. I’d like to remind those of you who have stuck it out to this point of the fate of the Hungarian linguists J. He discovered that the resemblances between Hungarian and Saami were so striking that they could not be the result of chance. (two boys play) Correct, the verb is ih the singular because the subject of the sentence is kaksi ‘two’, compare ‘a twosome of boy[s] plays’; in English the subject is ‘boys’ yksitoista poikaa pelaa. ‘I am reading about two books.’ Luen kaksi apostolia. This sentence would mean ‘I will read (and finish) two apostles.’ To say ‘I read about two apostles.’ the words for ‘two’ and ‘apostles’ must be in the elative case: Luen kahdesta apostolista. Additional question: I read a book, This is bad English. Luen kirjaa joka päivä = ‘I do some reading in a book every day.’ Luen kirjan joka päivä. Noje of these three languages can be said to have progressive forms, at least here, even if the progressive forms of English have to be used to capture the sense of the sentences. Standard Finnish: lintu laulaa ‘the bird sings’ linnut laulavat ‘the birds sing’ lintu lauloi ‘the bird sang’ linnut lauloivat ‘the birds sang’ Many varieties of non-standard Finnish: lintu laulaa ‘the bird sings’ linnut laulaa ‘the birds sing’ lintu lauloi ‘the bird sang’ linnut lauloi ‘the birds sang’ The generalization of -vat, originally only a present marker, as the plural ending in both tenses is a relatively recent (19th century) innovation imposed from above in conjunction with language standardization. active participle]’, This -pi (~ -pa) is historically the same ending that Estonian has in the third person singular present: laulab, võib ‘(s)he can’.
If structural features which are known to have been abandoned due to contact with Indo‑European languages are admitted, the list must be lengthened to include a preference for SOV word order (largely given up in Finnish, still the norm in the non‑Baltic‑‑Finnic Uralic languages and Turkish), and no case agreement between adjective and noun (Finnish has recently acquired agreement on the model of neighboring languages, agreement is not even fully implemented in Estonian).
There is no reason to assume that the gene‑pool was ‘purer’ at some earlier period, if anything, the evidence of loanwords from Baltic languages such as morsian ‘bride’, sisar ‘sister’, tytär ‘daughter’, heimo ‘tribe, clan’; hammas ‘tooth’, reisi ‘thigh’ seem to indicate the reverse to be true. If, then, we entertain the idea that Mordvin is to Finno‑Ugric like Italian is to Latin ‑ the modern version of a language which has been spoken in the same area since time immemorial ‑ then the area inhabited by the Mordvins would be approximately the place where the Finno‑Ugric elements of Finnish (but not the Finns themselves) originated. However, the fact that we cannot find any substratum elements in Mordvin only means that there is no evidence of there having been a population in the area before the pre‑Mordvins arrived. Thus, trivially, the area where Mordvin is now spoken seems to be the most likely candidate for the ‘homeland’ of where the original Finno‑Ugric language was spoken. As I wrote in a previous posting, the fact that we are dealing with languages that share organizational strategies, seem to have been spoken by small populations which wandered, traded and freely intermingled with one another means that the entire question ‘what do we mean when we say that two languages are geneologically affiliated?
Ideas of some primitive Pekka Lehtinen leading a tribe of round-faced, blond-haired, blue-eyed proto‑Finns from the Volga to the Baltics and through them to Finland are to be dismissed as unscientific nonsense. ’ takes assumes an entirely different aspect within the Eurasian context. These questions have to be studied with scholarly objectivity, and any findings have to be evaluated in the light of new facts. Gyarmathyi spent a year in Lapland and, having nothing better to do, he learned Saami.
The structural relationships we see between Finnish and Turkish can thus be attributed to chance ‑ languages which have invested heavily in agglutination as their primary grammatical strategy can be expected to develop certain kinds of organizational strategies, borrowing ‑ language long spoken by primarily nomadic populations inhabiting vast, sparsely populated areas which come into contact with other languages of the same type through trade, spouse exchange, warfare, will borrow words, expressions, and organizational strategies, to common origin, or to some combination of the above.
**************** With best regards, Eugene Holman University of Helsinki . The mixture of Finno‑Ugric, Baltic, Slavic, and Germanic elements out of which the Baltic‑Finnic dialects which provided the input out of which modern Finnish developed consolidated itself in the territory of what is now Estonia and northern Latvia some 3,000 years ago, and was introduced to what is now Finland over the Baltic and, in a version which came to be somewhat more heavily influenced by Slavic, up along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland across the Neva, and upwards and outwards into the wildernesses of Karelia and the isthmus separating Lake Ladoga from Lake Ladoga. Fifteen hundred years ago there was a continuum of dialects covering most of the southern part of the interior of present day Finland, Karelia, the shores of the Neva, the isthmus between Lakes Onega and Ladoga, the southern shores of the Gulf of Finland, modern Estonia, and extending well into modern Latvia (at least down to the River Dvina).